Thoughts on Hoxha & Hoxhaism

INTRODUCTION

This article will be my brief critique of Albanian socialist leader Enver Hoxha & his modern followers.

Enver Hoxha was a great Marxist-Leninist & anti-revisionist. His works are a valuable contribution to anti-revisionism and the practical application of Marxism-Leninism. This ought to be recognized by every communist.

The critical comments I’m about to make should not be interpreted as a condemnation of Hoxha’s significant work.

WHEN HOXHA WAS CORRECT

Hoxha perhaps most well known for his firm critique of Khrushchevite Revisionism:

“The true Marxist-Leninists will intensify their principled struggle for the exposure of the Khrushchevite and other modern revisionists”
(Hoxha, Reject the Revisionist Thesis of the 20th Congress)

As well as his outstanding work against Yugoslav revisionism:

“The Yugoslav renegades abandoned the scientific theory of Marxism-Leninism on the socialist state right from the beginning…”
(Hoxha, Yugoslav “Self-Administration”)

However he also began to be very critical of Mao Tse-Tung’s China and this is where I feel he fell into serious errors. I will be writing a similar short article giving my thoughts on Maoism as well as the Juche Idea later. But for the time being let us point out that Mao also made mistakes, especially in the so-called “Three Worlds Theory” and it was entirely justified to point this out. In fact this was done by many supporters of Mao also.

One such pro-Mao communist was Harry Haywood who criticized the “incorrect strategic line of the Three Worlds Theory” in his article “China and its Supporters Were Wrong About USSR”. I will discuss the specifics of this issue in my future article on Mao.

WHEN HOXHA WAS WRONG

Let us now focus on Hoxha’s other criticisms of Maoist China.

1. The Peasant Question, People’s War

Hoxhaism claims that Mao gave up the leading role of the Proletariat to the Peasantry:

“Although he talked about the role of the proletariat, in practice Mao Tsetung underestimated its hegemony in the revolution and elevated the role of the peasantry.”
(Hoxha, Imperialism and the Revolution)

However, he in my opinion presents insufficient evidence to support this. Mao employed a worker-peasant alliance under the leadership of the Proletariat & the Communist Party as Lenin and Stalin did. Hoxha claims that in Mao’s case this was mere rhetoric and not true, and that in reality the Proletariat was never the leader, but I find this unconvincing.

Is there any doubt that the Communist Party was at the head of the Revolution? Is there any doubt that Communism is first and foremost a working class & not a peasant ideology? Hoxha’s best evidence seems to be the numerical superiority of the peasants, but the same argument was frequently made against Lenin by dogmatists.

Hoxha’s second piece of evidence is Mao’s slogan of ‘the countryside encircling the cities’. Hoxha claims that this was not merely a tactic but a deviation from Marxism-Leninism. In my opinion he fails to justify this. The soundness of the strategy was proven by the fact that they won. Are all guerrilla movements which hide in the countryside, mountains and forests going against Marxism-Leninism? Surely not.

Mao’s military strategy was based on Marxist-Leninist analysis & popularizing previous military writings, Sun Tzu’s Art of War in particular.

2. National Liberation, United Fronts, New Democracy

Hoxha argues that Mao was a class-collaborator:

“The revisionist concepts of Mao Tsetung have their basis in the policy of collaboration and alliance with the bourgeoisie”
(Hoxha, ibid.)

This is based on the fact that the Chinese Communist Party allied with all patriotic elements against the Japanese invasion in a nationwide united front. Does Hoxha denounce all united fronts? No he doesn’t, he cannot do that as united fronts are an accepted Marxist-Leninist tactic. Therefore Hoxha only denounces this particular united front.

Hoxha attacks the Maoist policy of ‘New Democracy’ as class collaboration, as the New Democratic State allowed the existence of not only workers but also capitalists & peasants under the leadership of the Communist Party. Hoxhaists might point out that the other classes also had some representation in the government, but to claim that the Proletariat & the Communist Party were not leading the State is quite frankly ridiculous.

The New Democratic State was designed as a transition from semi-feudalism & semi-colonialism to Socialism. The other socialist countries; ‘People’s Democracies’ in Eastern Europe as well as the Soviet Union during the NEP policy, grappled with these issues. Hoxha doesn’t denounce all of them, only Mao.

Hoxha attacks Mao for his idea that there are antagonistic & non-antagonistic class contradictions, i.e. that some class differences can be solved relatively peacefully in the context of the Worker’s State. It was necessary to violently overthrow the KMT, compradors & landlords. However the peasantry & patriotic forces that supported the Communists do not need to be dealt with in the same way.

The Bolsheviks did not immediately wipe out all the capitalist elements, instead they allowed them to exist in a restricted form during the NEP. The Bolsheviks first secured the gains of the Democratic Revolution and only later constructed Socialism. During the Collectivization of Agriculture the Bolsheviks wanted to “win over the middle-peasant” (and isolate the Kulak). This would be solving the contradiction between the workers and poor & middle-peasants in a peaceful non-antagonistic way. For some reason Hoxha doesn’t consider this to be class collaboration in the same way.

Considering that China was semi-colonial & even more backward then the Soviet Union, it should be expected that more compromises would have to be made with the classes with different but not antagonistic interests like the petit-bourgeois peasants. It would take longer to get rid of these social classes then in countries with more favorable conditions. Still the landlords were gotten rid of, agricultural collectivization was implemented, industry was nationalized.

MISTAKES OF MODERN HOXHAIST PRAXIS

I consider Hoxhaists my comrades. I am non-sectarian enough to support Hoxhaist parties such as the Brazilian PCR as based on the information from my Brazilian comrades they are the best party of their country. However there are elements in modern Hoxhaism which I’d prefer not to be there.

Hoxhaists have seem to have an ultra-left tendency of seeking “ideological purity” over all else. This means sectarianism, isolating themselves from others, attacking non-Hoxhaist Marxist-Leninists as “revisionists” and deadly enemies.

In general Hoxhaists seem incapable of distinguishing between disagreement, deviation & revisionism. A deviation is a one-sided mistaken line in Marxism. Naturally there are different degrees of deviation, some of which are more harmful then others. Revisionism means an anti-marxist trend, a line that contradicts with the core of marxism.

In my opinion Maoism & Juche both show some signs of deviation, but not revisionism. What I consider the flaws of Maoism are in no way on the same level as the anti-Marxist tendencies of Khrushchevite, Trotskyite or Titoite Revisionism.

I shouldn’t have to explain what disagreement means, but it seems it is necessary. We will always have disagreement about the correct tactics, the correct policies, the correct slogans. It is not always Revisionist to have different views.

It should be obvious to everyone that China not only nationalized large industry but also implemented policies of agricultural collectivization similar to the Soviet Union. The notion that they were not constructing socialism is absurd and based on a nitpicking “left-communist” attitude. They don’t care about the big picture. If they can find some excuse to denounce something as Revisionism, they will.

This conduct is not different from “Left-Communist”, “Orthodox Marxists”, Trotskyists and other armchair revolutionaries who claim “the Soviet Union was state capitalist because it still used money instead of labor vouchers” or some such nonsense. Unfortunately many Hoxhaists boldly proclaim such absurdities; “China was never building socialism. Mao was a Revisionist”. I say this is nonsense.

HOXHAISM OR LENINISM?

The biggest danger for Hoxhaists is sectarianism. They openly admit that they are Marxist-Leninists, that Hoxha was an anti-revisionist and not someone who created new theory. Hoxha’s writings popularized & applied Marxism-Leninism just like Stalin did, and Hoxha never sought to create a new “ism”. Hoxhaists should agree with this.

So why do we have Hoxhaist parties? Why do we have Hoxhaism? Hoxhaists feel that if a Marxist-Leninist organization doesn’t identify as Hoxhaist then probably a new party should be created, though they might come up with some other excuse for this splitting action.

Maybe I am a hopeless centrist for not being a Hoxhaist nor a Maoist. Maybe I am centrist for thinking its counter productive to spend most of one’s time denouncing Maoism & the DPRK as revisionists, enemies, worse then capitalists etc., instead of actually trying to advance Communism.

Particularly small parties and groups have a tendency for sectarianism & isolating themselves. This is true of many Maoist groups as well and seems to be a serious danger for all Hoxhaist groups. The Brazilian PCR doesn’t seem to suffer from this quite as much as some others, but I’ve been criticized for being “pro-Mao” by some Brazilian Hoxhaists (in a friendly discussion) as if that is what we should be worried about at this point.

You don’t see Maoists or Marxist-Leninists focusing all their time on attacking Hoxha, yet Hoxhaists seem obsessed with attacking us non-Hoxhaist M-Ls. This is wrecking activity and harms our movement.

Should there in my opinion exist specifically Hoxhaist parties? Absolutely not. We need Marxist-Leninist parties. Everyone should recognize the positive contribution of Hoxha and all the times when he was correct, we don’t need to be “Hoxhaists” to do that.

If some comrades insist on labeling themselves “Hoxhaists” then so be it. But that is not a big enough issue to split over, not from their point of view or mine. Like Hoxha, I call for ‘true Marxist-Leninist unity’.

Unity cannot be unprincipled, we cannot achieve unity by merely proclaiming that we have it and then still continue to have big differences which are brushed aside, we all know this. However to have disunity or split over minor questions is sectarian. The Hoxhaist vs. M-L split is obviously just such a minor question, to claim the opposite only proves my point.

The quest to have specifically Hoxhaist organizations, to have Hoxha’s face and name always visible as a priority, to split with those who don’t agree with Hoxha on everything is obviously sectarian.

Marxist-Leninist Theory

MARX & ENGELS:

Marx engels Art1

Marx & Engels Collected Works online at HIAW

Marx-Engels Collected Works Volume 1
Marx-Engels Collected Works Volume 2
Marx-Engels Collected Works Volume 3
Marx-Engels Collected Works Volume 4
Marx-Engels Collected Works Volume 5
Marx-Engels Collected Works Volume 6
Marx-Engels Collected Works Volume 7
Marx-Engels Collected Works Volume 8
Marx-Engels Collected Works Volume 9
Marx-Engels Collected Works Volume 10
Marx-Engels Collected Works Volume 11
Marx-Engels Collected Works Volume 12
Marx-Engels Collected Works Volume 13
Marx-Engels Collected Works Volume 14
Marx-Engels Collected Works Volume 15
Marx-Engels Collected Works Volume 16
Marx-Engels Collected Works Volume 17
Marx-Engels Collected Works Volume 18
Marx-Engels Collected Works Volume 19
Marx-Engels Collected Works Volume 20
Marx-Engels Collected Works Volume 21
Marx-Engels Collected Works Volume 22
Marx-Engels Collected Works Volume 23
Marx-Engels Collected Works Volume 24
Marx-Engels Collected Works Volume 25
Marx-Engels Collected Works Volume 26
Marx-Engels Collected Works Volume 27
Marx-Engels Collected Works Volume 28
Marx-Engels Collected Works Volume 29
Marx-Engels Collected Works Volume 30
Marx-Engels Collected Works Volume 31
Marx-Engels Collected Works Volume 32
Marx-Engels Collected Works Volume 33
Marx-Engels Collected Works Volume 34
Marx-Engels Collected Works Volume 35
Marx-Engels Collected Works Volume 36
Marx-Engels Collected Works Volume 37
Marx-Engels Collected Works Volume 38
Marx-Engels Collected Works Volume 39
Marx-Engels Collected Works Volume 40
Marx-Engels Collected Works Volume 41
Marx-Engels Collected Works Volume 42
Marx-Engels Collected Works Volume 43
Marx-Engels Collected Works Volume 44
Marx-Engels Collected Works Volume 45
Marx-Engels Collected Works Volume 46
Marx-Engels Collected Works Volume 47
Marx-Engels Collected Works Volume 48
Marx-Engels Collected Works Volume 49
Marx-Engels Collected Works Volume 50

 

LENIN:

1916-00

Lenin Collected Works Vol. 1
Lenin Collected Works Vol. 2
Lenin Collected Works Vol. 3
Lenin Collected Works Vol. 4
Lenin Collected Works Vol. 5
Lenin Collected Works Vol. 6
Lenin Collected Works Vol. 7
Lenin Collected Works Vol. 8
Lenin Collected Works Vol. 9
Lenin Collected Works Vol. 10
Lenin Collected Works Vol. 11
Lenin Collected Works Vol. 12
Lenin Collected Works Vol. 13
Lenin Collected Works Vol. 14
Lenin Collected Works Vol. 15
Lenin Collected Works Vol. 16
Lenin Collected Works Vol. 17
Lenin Collected Works Vol. 18
Lenin Collected Works Vol. 19
Lenin Collected Works Vol. 20
Lenin Collected Works Vol. 21
Lenin Collected Works Vol. 22
Lenin Collected Works Vol. 23
Lenin Collected Works Vol. 24
Lenin Collected Works Vol. 25
Lenin Collected Works Vol. 26
Lenin Collected Works Vol. 27
Lenin Collected Works Vol. 28
Lenin Collected Works Vol. 29
Lenin Collected Works Vol. 30
Lenin Collected Works Vol. 31
Lenin Collected Works Vol. 32
Lenin Collected Works Vol. 33
Lenin Collected Works Vol. 34

Lenin Collected Works Vol. 35
Lenin Collected Works Vol. 36
Lenin Collected Works Vol. 37
Lenin Collected Works Vol. 38
Lenin Collected Works Vol. 39
Lenin Collected Works Vol. 40
Lenin Collected Works Vol. 41
Lenin Collected Works Vol. 42

 

STALIN:

stalin Lenin GOOD

Stalin Collected Works Volume 1.
Stalin Collected Works Volume 2.
Stalin Collected Works Volume 3.
Stalin Collected Works Volume 4.
Stalin Collected Works Volume 5.
Stalin Collected Works Volume 6.
Stalin Collected Works Volume 7.
Stalin Collected Works Volume 8.
Stalin Collected Works Volume 9.
Stalin Collected Works Volume 10.
Stalin Collected Works Volume 11.
Stalin Collected Works Volume 12.
Stalin Collected Works Volume 13.
Stalin Collected Works Volume 14.
Stalin Collected Works Volume 15.

The History of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (Bolsheviks) – Short Course

Conversations with Stalin on Questions of Political Economy

Stalin correspondence

Stalin Miscellany

 

MAO TSE-TUNG:

mao-studying-01

Quotations from Chairman Mao

Mao Selected Works vol. 1
Mao Selected Works vol. 2
Mao Selected Works vol. 3
Mao Selected Works vol. 4

Mao Selected Works vol. 5

Mao Selected Works vol. 6
Mao Selected Works vol. 7
Mao Selected Works vol. 8
Mao Selected Works vol. 9

Mao Collected Works volume-1
Mao Collected Works volume2-part1
Mao Collected Works volume2-part2
Mao Collected Works volume2-part3
Mao Collected Works volume3-part1
Mao Collected Works volume3-part2
Mao Collected Works volume3-part3
Mao Collected Works volume3-part4
Mao Collected Works volume3-part5
Mao Collected Works volume4-part1
Mao Collected Works volume4-part2
Mao Collected Works volume4-part3
Mao Collected Works volume4-part4
Mao Collected Works volume4-part5
Mao Collected Works volume4-part6
Mao Collected Works volume5-part1
Mao Collected Works volume5-part2
Mao Collected Works volume6-part1
Mao Collected Works volume6-part2
Mao Collected Works volume7
Mao Collected Works volume8
Mao Collected Works volume9-part1
Mao Collected Works volume9-part2
Mao Collected Works volume9-part3

On the Use of Trotskyists as Japanese Spies in China

 

CHE GUEVARA:

che-guevara-2

On Revolutionary Medicine (1960)
Notes for the Study of the Ideology of the Cuban Revolution (1960)
Guerrilla_Warfare (1961)
Economics Cannot be Separated from Politics (1961)
Cuba: Historical exception or vanguard in the anticolonial struggle? (1961)
Mobilising the Masses for the Invasion (1961)
The Cadres: Backbone of the Revolution (1962)
Reminiscences of the Cuban Revolutionary War (1963)
Guerrilla warfare: A method (1963)
On Development (1964)
At the United Nations (1964)
At the Afro-Asian Conference in Algeria (1965)
Socialism and man in Cuba (1965)
Farewell letter from Che to Fidel Castro (1965)
Message to the Tricontinental (1967)

Socialism and Man in Cuba & Other Works (1968)

ENVER HOXHA:

hxoha

Hoxha Selected Works vol. 1
Hoxha Selected Works vol. 2
Hoxha Selected Works vol. 3
Hoxha Selected Works vol. 4
Hoxha Selected Works vol. 5
Hoxha Selected Works vol. 6

 

GRAMSCI: 

Italian Communist leader and major theoretician. Gramsci was imprisoned when the Fascists came to power in Italy but continued his work in prison and wrote a vast amount of political writings during this time.

gramsci1.jpg

Gramsci Selections from Prison Notebooks
Gramsci Prison Notebooks volume 1
Gramsci Prison Notebooks volume 3

Other writings

“Gramsci and Stalin” by Aldo Bernardini

O. W. KUUSINEN:

Important Finnish & Soviet Communist leader & theoretician. Kuusinen was one of the leaders of the Finnish Revolution of 1918. After the failure of the revolution he fled to the USSR where he was among the founders of the Finnish Communist Party the same year.

In the 1920s Kuusinen became a Comintern Leader and a collaborator with Lenin. In 1939 he led the Finnish People’s Government (a soviet backed faction in the Winter War). After the war he was the Chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the Karelo-Finnish SSR until Khrushchev’s coming to power in 1956 but was able to continue theoretical and political work during de-stalinization.

Ottokuusinen

 

The Finnish Revolution: A Self-Criticism
Under the Leadership of Russia (1924)
A Misleading Description of the “German October” (1925)
The Revolutionary Movement in the Colonies (1928) 
Concluding Speech of Comrade Kuusinen on the Colonial Question (1928)
A Warmongers’ International (1951)
Fundamentals of Marxism-Leninism (1960) (PDF)  (Online Text)

Kuusisen kirjoituksia Suomeksi (Kuusinen works in Finnish)

Sosialismi ja yksilön vapaus (1. osa) (1906)
Sosialismi ja yksilön vapaus (2. osa) (1906)
Eduskuntakomitean ehdotus valtiopäiväjärjestykseksi (1906)
Senaatin laatima painovapauslakiehdotus (1906)
Eduskuntauudistuksen viimeiset vaiheet (1906)
Venäjän vallankumousliike ja Suomen sosialidemokratia (1906)
Oulun puoluekokouksen periaatteellinen merkitys (1906)
Laki hallituksen jäsenten oikeudellisesta vastuunalaisuudesta (1906)
Anarkia ja vallankumous (1906)
Avoin kirje toveri Leninille (1918)
Suomen vallankumouksesta: itsekritiikkiä
SKP:n taistelukyvyttömyyden syistä taistelussa fasismia vastaan
Suomen työtätekevälle kansalle
Työtätekevän kansan vihan ja aktiivisen vastarinnan kasvu (1943)
Lokakuun suuri sosialistinen vallankumous (1949)
Missä on Stalin, Siellä on Voitto (1949)

MOLOTOV:

molotov.jpg

The_Communist_Party_of_the_Soviet_Union (1929)
The_Success_of_the_5_Year_Plan (1931)
The October Revolution and the Triumph of Socialism (1932)
Soviet_Prosperity (1935)
Two_Speeches (1935)
The_International_Situation_and_the_Soviet_Union (1935)
On the New Soviet Constitution
(Nov 1937)
Speech at the Session of the Supreme Council of the U.S.S.R (1938)
The_Soviet_Union_in 1942: The Third Five-Year Plan (1939)
The Foreign Policy of the Soviet Union (Mar 1940) (PDF) (Text)
On the Nazi Invasion of the Soviet Union (Jun 22 1941)
Note of the People’s Commissar of Foreign Affairs of the USSR (1942)
28th_Anniversary of October_Revolution (Nov 6 1945)
Electoral Speech in Moscow (Feb 1946)

KALININ:

mikhail-kalinin_2-t

On Communist Education (speeches and articles)
World_Peace_Or_War (1938)
Stalin: Sixty_Years_(1939)
Why_We_Win (1945)

KAGANOVICH:

kaganovich_33

Purging_the_party (1933)
Report on the organizational problems of party and soviet construction (1934)
Construction of the subway and the plan of the city of Moscow (1934)

 

ZHDANOV:

zhdanov

Amendments to the Rules of the C.P.S.U.(B.) (1939)
About one anti-patriotic group of theatre critics (Jan 28 1949)
The Duty of a Soviet Writer (Aug 21, 1946)
On Literature, Music and Philosophy (1950)

ORJONIKIDZE:

sergo3

Completion of the Reconstruction of the Entire National Economy (1934)

 

KRUPSKAYA:

220px-Krupskaja_1890

Reminiscences of Lenin (1933)
Why Is the Second International Defending Trotsky?
(1936)
Soviet_Woman:_A_Citizen_With_Equal_Rights (1937)

Other writings

 

MAXIM GORKY:

gorky.jpg

Vladimir Ilyich Lenin (1920)
Lenin Eulogy (1924)
Soviet Literature (1934)
Pushkin: An Appraisal (1937)
The People Must Know Their History! (1939)
A letter to Stalin

Other writings

 

ERNST THÄLLMANN:

thälmann

(Unofficial English translations courtesy of A Red In Ohio)

Thälmann Works Volume I 1919-1928
Thälmann Volume II 1928-1930
Thälmann Works Volume III 1930-1932
Thälmann Volume IV 1932-1933

Deutsch (In German)

Thälmann Werke Band I 1919-1928
Thälmann Werke Band II 1928-1930
Thälmann Werke Band III 1930-1932
Thälmann Werke Band IV 1932-1933
BIERUT:

bierut_en_650.jpeg

People’s Poland (1948)
The Six Year Plan (1950)

SVERDLOV:

Sverdlov: short_biographical_sketch (1932)

KIROV:

kirov speeches writings (1937) [In Russian]

KAYPAKKAYA:

kaypakkaya1

On the Kurdish National Question (1972)

Ibrahim Kaypakkaya, Selected Works

Short biography of Kaypakkaya:
Life and Struggle of Kaypakkaya (2002)

 

HARRY HAYWOOD: (credit to The Marxist-Leninist for collecting a lot of this material on their site)

HHaywood

Comintern Resolutions on the African American National Question (1928 and 1930)
Lynching, A Weapon of of National Oppression (1932)
The Struggle for the Leninist Position on the Negro Question in the United States (1933)
The South Comes North in Detroit’s Own Scottsboro Case (1934)
Negro Liberation (1948)
For a Revolutionary Position on the Negro Question (1958)
Letter from Harry Haywood to the Provisional Organizing Committee (1958)
The Crisis and Growth of Negro Reformism and the Growth of Nationalism (1965)
The Two Epochs of Nation-Development: Is Black Nationalism a Form of Classical Nationalism? (1965)
Is the Black Bourgeoisie the Leader of the Black Liberation Movement? (1966)
The Nation of Islam: An Estimate (1967)
Unite to Build the New Party (1976)
Speech at CPML Congress: “We Have Taken the First Step on a Long March” (1977)

Searching for Answers
(from Black Bolshevik: Autobiography of an Afro-American Communist –1978)
Trotsky’s Day in Court (from Black Bolshevik: Autobiography of an Afro-American Communist –1978)
The Degeneration of the CPUSA in the 1950s (from Black Bolshevik: Autobiography of an Afro-American Communist –1978)

China and its Supporters Were Wrong About the USSR (1984)

Other writings

 

HO CHI MINH:

ho chi mihn stalin lenin

Lenin And The Colonial Peoples (Jan 27, 1924)
Three letters from Ho Chi Minh (1939)
The Path Which Led Me To Leninism (1960)

Other writings
THE BLACK PANTHER PARTY:

Seize the Time: The Story of the Black Panther Party and Huey P. Newton
by Bobby Seale (founding chairman of the Black Panther Party)

A history of the Black Panther Party (text) (audio)

FRANTZ FANON:

Frantz_Fanon.jpg

The Wretched of the Earth (1965) (text) (audio)

ERICH HONECKER:

Erich Honecker

From My Life (biography)

The GDR: A State of Peace and Socialism (1984)
Two speeches to the Free German Youth

THOMAS SANKARA:

thomas_sankara1

Political Orientation Speech (Oct 2, 1983)
Last Written Speech
(1987)

 

Lenin book